Archive for the ‘Oracle 12c’ Category


What does it contain or we expect from this release?

  1. Tagged as a fully autonomous database if your database in Oracle Public Cloud
  2. If you are not in Oracle Public cloud, you will not be getting fully autonomous features
  3. Self-patching sounds to me like Oracle Configuration Management feature enhancements

Hope this helps…

Nimai Karmakar

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Hi Guys,


Last day I just installed and was thinking to let start with some basics on oracle 12c like what is it? why we need it?

what are the new features available?


So after some research on that (although it was not so hard.. :)) I came to know with some below points.


New Multitenant Architecture
Designed for the cloud, Oracle Multitenant delivers a new architecture that simplifies consolidation and delivers the high density of schema based consolidation, but without requiring changes to existing applications. It’s an option of Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition that offers all the benefits of managing many databases as one, yet retains the isolation and resource control of separate databases. In this new architecture, a single multitenant container database can host many ‘pluggable’ databases. Each database consolidated or ‘plugged in’ to a multitenant container looks and feels to applications the same as for existing Oracle databases. Accessing pluggable databases is the same as for existing Oracle databases, and administrators can control the prioritization of available resources between consolidated databases.


Manage Many Databases As One
Consolidating multiple databases means that administrators have fewer databases to manage and the benefits of managing many databases as one can permeate throughout the data center. It is fairly common for IT organizations to manage hundreds, if not thousands of databases, and each of those databases -be they for production, test or development -requires maintenance.


Fewer Patches and Upgrades
Applying patches, patch set updates and product updates to multiple (non-consolidated) databases in order to maintain currency of database releases can be a challenge that only gets more difficult with the number of databases managed. All databases in the data center, regardless of their production, test or development status, are subject to patching and upgrading. Consolidating multiple pluggable databases into a multitenant container can dramatically reduce the amount of patching and upgrade activities required. With Oracle Databases 12c, patches and upgrades are applied at the container level, and not applied to individual pluggable databases. Customers also have the flexibility of creating new patched and/or upgraded container databases and selectively unplugging databases from older container databases and plugging into new upgraded container databases.


Fewer Backups
Every good database administrator regularly takes backup copies of all databases managed in the data center. However, instead of having to backup each separate database in the data center, the new pluggable architecture only requires executing backups at the multitenant container level. This means that database administrators have fewer backups to manage, as each pluggable database in a container database is automatically backed up. However, in the event of any problem encountered with an individual pluggable database, database administrators have the flexibility to perform data recovery operations at the pluggable database level within a container database.

Fewer Standby Databases
Another good example of the benefits of managing many pluggable databases as one is maintaining standby databases. Many Oracle customers use replication technologies such as Oracle Data Guard or Oracle Active Data Guard to maintain complete working copies of production databases by shipping and applying redo logs to a standby system usually in a separate location. With Oracle Database 12c, shipping and applying of redo logs occurs at the container level, therefore every pluggable database consolidated into a container is fully protected from site outages. In addition, customers using Oracle Active Data Guard can make active use of their standby pluggable databases for reporting and other purposes.


Database Resource Management (This one is good..)
While there are undoubtedly many benefits from consolidating multiple databases, customers should consider all aspects of database consolidation. An obvious question to ask is “how can I guarantee the prioritization of resources in this new multitenant architecture?” After all, many of the benefits of managing many database as one will be quickly lost if database applications are continually vying for available system resources, and user performance service levels start to drop off.
Using Oracle Database 12c’s resource management features, database administrators can easily define resource utilization priorities at the pluggable database level. The database server pro-actively monitors database usage to ensure that each pluggable database in a container stays within pre-defined minimum and maximum resource thresholds. For example, at quarter-end, a high priority ERP application can automatically pull system resources from low priority applications in the container to ensure users performance service level remain consistent even at peak demand.


I got all the points from an oracle documentation or you can say oracle white paper, I only have noted which seems important for DBAs to begin with.Click on the link to open it.


and then after installing oracle 12c and it was not a big deal, I thought from where should I start… what is multitenant/container/plugable.

A container is either a PDB or the root. The root container is a collection of schemas, schema objects, and nonschema objects to which all PDBs belong.

Every CDB has the following containers:

  • Exactly one root

    The root stores Oracle-supplied metadata and common users. An example of metadata is the source code for Oracle-supplied PL/SQL packages. A common user is a database user known in every container. The root container is named CDB$ROOT.

  • Exactly one seed PDB

    The seed PDB is a system-supplied template that the CDB can use to create new PDBs. The seed PDB is named PDB$SEED. You cannot add or modify objects in PDB$SEED.

  • Zero or more user-created PDBs

    A PDB is a user-created entity that contains the data and code required for a specific set of features. For example, a PDB can support a specific application, such as a human resources or sales application. No PDBs exist at creation of the CDB. You add PDBs based on your business requirements.


Oracle 12c cloud architecture


You can use the same administration tools for both CDBs and non-CDBs.

For example, you can use the following tools in a multitenant environment:

  • SQL*Plus for command-line access
  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control (Cloud Control)

    Cloud Control is an Oracle Database administration tool that provides a graphical user interface (GUI). Cloud Control supports Oracle Database 12targets, including PDBs, CDBs, and non-CDBs.

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express (EM Express)

    EM Express is a web-based management product built into the Oracle database. EM Express enables you to provision and manage PDBs, including the following operations:

    • Creating and dropping PDBs
    • Plugging in and unplugging and PDBs
    • Cloning PDBs
    • Setting resource limits for PDBs
  • Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA)

    DBCA enables you to create CDBs or non-CDBs, and create, plug, and unplug PDBs.

  • Oracle Multitenant Self-Service Provisioning application

    This application enables the self-service provisioning of PDBs. CDB administrators control access to this self-service application and manage quotas on PDBs.


Okay this is as quick post to begin with, soon I will post some more points to begin with. Please feel free to post your comments or questions and experts are always welcome with there valuable points.


Thanks & Regards

Nimai Karmakar

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Today Hemant Sir have posted a good link that represent some basic for oracle HIGH AVAILABILITY with demonstration.


Please click the link…


oracle High availability demos…


Hope this helps…

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Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Installation on Solaris Spark 64bit


As stated earlier on my post about the installation of Oracle 12c enterprise manager cloud control installation. So , friends this post belong to the installation….

Please comment your suggestion or any feedback.


The minimal Hardware requirement for OMS (got the data from metalink docs) –


1 OMS, < =1000 targets, <100 agents 2 OMSes for < =10,000 targets and <1000 agents >2 OMSes, >=10,000 targets, >=1000 agents
CPU Cores/Host 2 4 8
RAM 4 GB 6 GB 8 GB
RAM with ADP, JVMD 6 GB 10 GB 14 GB
Oracle WebLogic Server JVM Heap Size 512 MB 1 GB 2 GB
Hard Disk Space 7 GB 7 GB 7 GB
Hard Disk Space with ADP, JVMD 10 GB 12 GB 14 GB


Note – If you have Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Release 4 ( or lower installed, then you must first upgrade to Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Release 5 ( or Enterprise Manager 11g Grid Control Release 1 ( before you can upgrade to the new release.


Before proceeding please drop the old enterprise manager repository database.

Follow the steps to drop the old EM (Single Instance) repository –

  1. $ORACLE_HOME/bin/emca <space>-deconfig <space> dbcontrol <space> db<space> -repos <space> drop <space> – SYS_PWD <SYS Password> <space> – SYSMAN_PWD <SYSMAN Password>
  2. Enter the following information:

Database SID: DBTEST11G

Listener port number: 1525

To de-configure Database Control for a Real Application Clusters (RAC) database, follow the following command on database host:

  1. Set the environment variable <ORACLE_HOME>.
  2. Now run the following command:

$ORACLE HOME/bin/emca <space> -deconfig <space> dbcontrol <space> db <space> -repos <space>drop <space> -cluster <space> -SYS_PWD <space> <sys password> <space> -SYSMAN_PWD <sysman password>



Oracle strongly suggest to make below changes on your database before start 12c installation Init.ora parameter dedicated to EM12.







MEMORY_TARGET => should not be used

Or if your using and using automatic memory management then no need to update SGA_TARGET or PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET


Now that the environment and repository database is ready let’s start the installation.

First we need to update the parameters as per our environment.

SQL> alter system set shared_pool_size=600M scope=both sid=’*’;

alter system set PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET=1G scope=both sid=’*’;

alter system set PROCESSES=300 scope=spfile sid=’*’;

alter system set sessions=335 scope=spfile sid=’*’;

(as the 10g rule applied for 1.1*process+5)

alter system set JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES=20 scope=both sid=’*’;

alter system set SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS=300 scope=spfile sid=’*’;

Oracle recommended to use UNDO tablespace is at least 200M in size.


In 11g version We need to install Weblogic separately but in 12c its comes by default .(Default version is 10.3.5

Please be sure DO NOT SET ORACLE_HOME or ORACLE_SID before start installation

Oracle also recommended to set umask 022 before start installation

Now we can start 12.1 installation.


Go to 12.1 setup path and type below command to can start installation



  • ./runInstaller


  • Optional screen to provide oracle support credentials.


  • If you are skipping the support credentials page. Just press yes and proceed.



  • Next screen is the prerequisite check(here we got a failed prerequisite check ulimit)


To solve the ulimit error we need to add set ulimit = 4096 /etc/system file if available but in our scenario as it is a virtual server we have to add it to /etc/project file.


save the file and do source /etc/project and check it

bash-3.2$ projects -l


projid : 0

comment: “”

users : (none)

groups : (none)



projid : 1

comment: “”

users : (none)

groups : (none)



projid : 2

comment: “”

users : (none)

groups : (none)



projid : 3

comment: “”

users : (none)

groups : (none)



projid : 10

comment: “”

users : (none)

groups : (none)



projid : 100

comment: “”

users : (none)

groups : (none)

attribs: project.max-sem-ids=(privileged,100,deny)






  •  Once the prerequisite have passed we can proceed with Installation type.


Here we need to select the installation type depend upon our environment to monitor.

If you use Simple than Cloud Control will install by default plugins. (Exadata ,Oracle Database, Fusion Middleware, My Oracle Support)

  • Next we have to provide the location for Middleware and Agent Binaries.


  • Next we need to supply the oms admin credentials with the DB details where you want to install the management repository database.


While specifying Database Host name please be sure to use the fully qualified domain name like testDB.oracle.com or you can also supply the host IP.

  • Review the setup and click next.


  • In addition after proceeding with the setup you may get yes/no and ok/cancel screen just review and proceed further.


  • After the installation is successful. Just execute the root.sh

Now wait for around 45 minutes to complete the setup and open the URL at the browser…


  1. After everything is done successfully. Use the link to open the enterprise manager console.



Login with the username sysman and the password you have provided during installation.


  To check the status of enterprise manager agent.

cd $AGENT_HOME/bin

bash-3.2$ ./emctl status agent

Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c Release 4

Copyright (c) 1996, 2014 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.


Agent Version         :

OMS Version           :

Protocol Version       :

Agent Home             : /u01/oracle/enterprise_mang/agent/agent_inst

Agent Log Directory   : /u01/oracle/enterprise_mang/agent/agent_inst/sysman/log

Agent Binaries         : /u01/oracle/enterprise_mang/agent/core/

Agent Process ID      : 5969

Parent Process ID     : 5918

Agent URL             : https://testDB:3872/emd/main/

Local Agent URL in NAT : https://testDB:3872/emd/main/

Repository URL         : https://testDB:1159/empbs/upload

Started at             : 2014-09-15 21:24:42

Started by user       : oracle

Operating System       : SunOS version 5.10 (sparcv9)

Last Reload           : (none)

Last successful upload                       : 2014-09-16 12:16:28

Last attempted upload                       : 2014-09-16 12:16:28

Total Megabytes of XML files uploaded so far : 2.06

Number of XML files pending upload           : 0

Size of XML files pending upload(MB)         : 0

Available disk space on upload filesystem   : 44.19%

Collection Status                           : Collections enabled

Heartbeat Status                             : Ok

Last attempted heartbeat to OMS             : 2014-09-16 12:17:03

Last successful heartbeat to OMS             : 2014-09-16 12:17:03

Next scheduled heartbeat to OMS             : 2014-09-16 12:18:03



Agent is Running and Ready




Hope that will help a bit…


Thanks & Regards

Nimai Karmakar

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Few days back we have a requirement to install oracle 12c enterprise manager cloud control for a Solaris Server 10 with 16 database to be monitored.

So, it was a good opportunity for me to learn and share , so as discussed on my earlier post for some griding.

Below are some of the basic concepts which help me from docs.


In case you want to know anything other than this please comment ….



Oracle 12c Enterprise manager Cloud control basic concepts……




Monitoring Overview

Enterprise Manager Cloud Control monitoring functionality permits unattended monitoring of your IT environment. Enterprise Manager comes with a comprehensive set of performance and health metrics that allows monitoring of key components in your environment, such as applications, application servers, databases, as well as the back-end components on which they rely (such as hosts, operating systems, storage).

The Management Agent on each monitored host monitors the status, health, and performance of all managed components (targets) on that host. If a target goes down, or if a performance metric crosses a warning or critical threshold, an event is triggered and sent to Enterprise Manager. Administrators or any interested party can be notified of the triggered event through the Enterprise Manager Notification system.


Adding targets to monitor is simple. Enterprise Manager provides you with the option of either adding targets manually or automatically discovering all targets on a host. Enterprise Manager can also automatically and intelligently apply monitoring settings for newly added targets.


As your data center grows, it will become more challenging to manage individual targets separately, thus you can use Enterprise Manager’s group management functionality to organize large sets of targets into groups, allowing you to monitor and manage many targets as one.



Comprehensive Out-of-Box Monitoring

Monitoring begins as soon as you install Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c. Enterprise Manager’s Management Agents automatically start monitoring their host’s systems (including hardware and software configuration data on these hosts) as soon as they are deployed and started. Enterprise Manager provides auto-discovery scripts that enable these Agents to automatically discover all Oracle components and start monitoring them using a comprehensive set of metrics at Oracle-recommended thresholds.

Metrics from all monitored components are stored and aggregated in the Management Repository, providing administrators with a rich source of diagnostic information and trend analysis data. When critical alerts are detected, notifications are sent to administrators for rapid resolution.

Out-of-box, Enterprise Manager monitoring functionality provides:

  • In-depth monitoring with Oracle-recommended metrics and thresholds.
  • Monitoring of all components of your IT infrastructure (Oracle and non-Oracle) as well as the applications and services that are running on them.
  • Access to real-time performance charts.
  • Collection, storage, and aggregation of metric data in the Management Repository. This allows you to perform strategic tasks such as trend analysis and reporting.
  • E-mail and pager notifications for detected critical events.

Enterprise Manager can monitor a wide variety of components (such as databases, hosts, and routers) within your IT infrastructure.

Some examples of monitored metrics are:

  • Archive Area Used (Database)
  • Segments Approaching Maximum Extents Count (Database)
  • Network Interface Total I/O Rate (Host)

Monitoring: Basics

Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c comes with a comprehensive set of predefined performance and health metrics that enables automated monitoring of key components in your environment, such as applications, application servers, databases, as well as the back-end components on which they rely, such as hosts, operating systems, storage. While Enterprise Manager can monitor for many types of conditions (events), the most common use of its monitoring capability centers around the basics of monitoring for violation of acceptable performance boundaries defined by metric values.

Some metrics have associated predefined limiting parameters called thresholds that cause metric alerts (specific type of event) to be triggered when collected metric values exceed these limits. Enterprise Manager allows you to set metric threshold values for two levels of alert severity:

  • Warning – Attention is required in a particular area, but the area is still functional.
  • Critical – Immediate action is required in a particular area. The area is either not functional or indicative of imminent problems.

Hence, thresholds are boundary values against which monitored metric values are compared. For example, for each disk device associated with the Disk Utilization (%) metric, you might define a warning threshold at 80% disk space used and critical threshold at 95%.




Blackouts allow you to support planned outage periods to perform scheduled or emergency maintenance. When a target is put under blackout, monitoring is suspended, thus preventing unnecessary alerts from being sent when you bring down a target for scheduled maintenance operations such as database backup or hardware upgrade. Blackout periods are automatically excluded when calculating a target’s overall availability.

A blackout period can be defined for individual targets, a group of targets or for all targets on a host. The blackout can be scheduled to run immediately or in the future, and to run indefinitely or stop after a specific duration. Blackouts can be created on an as-needed basis, or scheduled to run at regular intervals. If, during the maintenance period, you discover that you need more (or less) time to complete maintenance tasks, you can easily extend (or stop) the blackout that is currently in effect. Blackout functionality is available from both the Enterprise Manager console as well as via the Enterprise Manager command-line interface (EM CLI).



For a typical monitoring scenario, when a target becomes unavailable or if thresholds for performance are crossed, events are raised and notifications are sent to the appropriate administrators. Enterprise Manager supports notifications via e-mail, pager, SNMP traps, or by running custom scripts and allows administrators to control these notification mechanisms through:

  • Notification Methods
  • Rules and Rule Sets


Notification Methods

A notification method represents a specific way to send notifications. Besides e-mail, there are three types of notification methods: OS Command, PL/SQL, SNMP Traps.


A rule instructs Enterprise Manager to take specific action when events or incidents (entity containing one important event or related events) occur, such as notifying an administrator or opening a helpdesk ticket.


Incident Manager

Enterprise Manager Cloud Control simplifies managing incidents through an intuitive UI called Incident Manager. Incident Manager provides and easy-to-use interface that allows you to search, view, manage, and resolve incidents and problems impacting your environment. To access Incident Manager, from the Enterprise menu, select Monitoring, and then Incident Manager.


Accessing Monitoring Information

Enterprise Manager provides multiple ways to access monitoring information. The primary focal point for incident management is the Incident Manager console, however Enterprise Manager also provides other ways to access monitoring information. The following figures show the various locations within Enterprise Manager that display target monitoring information. The following figure shows the Enterprise Manager Overview page that conveniently displays target status rollup and rollup of incidents.





Discovering, Promoting, and Monitoring

Enterprise Manager Cloud Control (Cloud Control) enables you to discover, promote, add, and then monitor software deployments across your network, using a single GUI-rich console.

What is Discovery?

Discovery refers to the process of identifying unmanaged hosts and targets in your environment. You can discover hosts and targets automatically or manually.



Autodiscovery Process

For discovery of a host, the autodiscovery process enables a Management Agent running on the host to run an Enterprise Manager job that scans for unmanaged hosts. You then convert these unmanaged hosts to managed hosts by deploying Management Agents on these hosts.


Guided Discovery Process

The guided discovery process enables you to explicitly add a specific database target as a target to bring under management. The discovery wizard guides you through the process and most of the specifications required are filled by default.

The benefits of using this process are as follows:

  • You can find targets with less effort.
  • You can find a new database that has been added recently even if autodiscovery has not been run.
  • You can find a non-promoted database that already exists in autodiscovery results, but has a change in details. For example, the port.
  • You eliminate unnecessary consumption of resources on the Management Agent when discovery is not needed.


Specifying Target Monitoring Properties

Specifying target monitoring properties enables you to manually specify all the details required to discover the database target, such as the host name and location, target name and location, and other specific information.


What is Promotion?

Promotion refers to the process of converting unmanaged hosts and targets, which have been discovered in your network, to managed hosts and targets in Cloud Control so that they can be monitored and managed efficiently. While conversion of unmanaged hosts to managed hosts involves deployment of a Management Agent on those hosts, conversion of unmanaged targets running on those hosts to managed targets involves only adding the targets as manageable entities in Cloud Control without deploying any additional component on the hosts.


What is Monitoring?

Monitoring refers to the process of gathering information and keeping track of activity, status, performance, and health of targets managed by Cloud Control on your host. A Management Agent deployed on the host in conjunction with plug-ins monitors every managed target on the host.


Hope this serve the purpose a bit..

Thanks & Regards

Nimai Karmakar







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